Polk County Place Names
Compiled By M. Constance Guardino III


January 2013



(1) Ford Family Slave Quarters (2) Former Slave Louis Southworth
(3) Lucinda & Nathaniel Ford (4) Polk County Courthouse (5) Glen O. Burnett

     Airlie was the southern terminus of the narrow gauge line of the Oregonian Railway Company, Ltd. The tracks were subsequently widened to standard gauge, and the property acquired by the Southern Pacific Company. The station was named for the Earl of Airlie, president of the syndicate of Scottish businessmen who bought the narrow gauge railway built by the people of Yamhill County and in 1881 extended it to this point. The Earl of Airlie visited Oregon during the course of construction of the railway. Most of the track on the Airlie branch was taken out in 1929. The post office, established Sep. 5, 1882, was located on the Luckiamute River about eight miles southwest of Monmouth. Jos. A. Dalton was the first postmaster. The office was discontinued Feb. 11, 1884, and re-established Sep. 14, 1885. It was discontinued again Jun. 15, 1943 and moved to Monmouth.
     Ballston, originally known as Ballsville, was named for Isaac Ball, owner of the original donation land claim on which the community was founded. The post office, established Jul. 19, 1880, was located about three miles east of Sheridan. Nathan Dickson was the first postmaster. It was discontinued Jun. 30, 1953. Ballston post office became a rural station of Sheridan, and was discontinued Sep. 30, 1969.
     Ballsville post office was established Sep. 19, 1878 and discontinued Jul. 19, 1880 when it became Ballston. Andrew N. Martin was the first postmaster.
     Bethel was named for the Bethel Church in Missouri by Rev. Glen O. Burnett. It was located in Plum Valley about two miles east of McCoy. Bethel Institute merged with the Monmouth Christian College, now the Oregon College of Education at Monmouth. It was established by members of the Christian Church, locally called Campbellites, with gifts of money and land. The post office was established Feb. 24, 1865, land discontinued Mar. 26, 1880, when it was moved to Zena. John H. Hawley was the first postmaster.
     Black Rock was the western terminus of a branch of the Southern Pacific Railroad from Dallas. It was located about five miles west of Falls City, and was named for an outcropping of shale in the area. The post office was established Nov. 17, 1906 and discontinued Oct. 15, 1943, when the office was moved to Falls City. Louis Gerlinger was the first postmaster.
     Bloomington was located on the lower reaches of the Luckiamute River near the community now known as Parker. The post office was established May 25, 1852, and discontinued Jun. 24, 1863. Eli W. Foster was the first postmaster.
    Bridgeport is an unorganized locality on Little Luckiamute River about three miles east or downstream from Falls City. It is said to have been named for a pioneer bridge over the stream, but the exact location of the structure is not known. Bridge Port post officer was established Jun. 1, 1854, with Saml. T. Scott first postmaster. The name of the office was very soon changed to Bridgeport. It continued operation until Jan. 13, 1874.
     Broadmead is descriptive of the broad meadows surrounding the post office, located about four miles southwest of Amity on Salt Creek. The office was established Jan. 8, 1915, and discontinued Sep. 4, 1942, when the office was moved to Amity. The first postmaster was Wm. H. Morris.
     Buell post office, located on Mill Creek, about six miles southeast of Willamina, was established Mar. 31, 1900, with Frank Oviatt first postmaster. The community, near Elk Horn, was named for Elias Buell, who was born in New York in 1798. Buell was a pioneer settler who operated a sawmill and small store here, and was most likely the father of Cyrus Buell, the Elk Horn postmaster in 1869. Buell’s wife, Sarah, was also born in New York in 1800. In 1950, a chapel erected in 1860 at Buell was still standing. Buell post office was discontinued May 31, 1924, and re-established Jun. 8, 1927. The office closed to Sheridan Sep. 30, 1943. Elk Horn post office, located on Mill Creek near Buell, was established Nov. 16, 1869, with Cyrus Buell first postmaster. Buell, who was born in Iowa in 1836, was a prominent settler on Mill Creek and was interested in the grist mill that gave the stream its name. For about five years the post office was on the Buell place about two miles south or upstream from the highway bridge and present location of the community called Buell. When Thms. R. Blair was appointed postmaster in 1874, the office was moved three miles north on Mill Creek from what is now Buell. The Elk Horn office closed to Sheridan on Oct. 4, 1882, but the locality, which is a little over four miles southwest of Sheridan by road, is still called Elk Horn.
     Buena Vista, Oregon’s first industrial city, is located on the west bank of the Willamette about six miles southeast of Independence. The one shack near the river was the only habitation in miles and no doubt Georgia-born Reason B. Hall (1791-1869) thought whoever lived there would be glad to see a stranger. Probably he was—but for a special reason. He answered Hall’s knock, said his name was Heck but very little more. Later he told Hall he had an urgent business matter to attend to and could Hall stay at the little two-room cabin to watch out for vandals or Indians until he got back? Hall said he could and moved in, carrying everything he owned. The stay stretched out for days, weeks and months. After a year and no Heck, Hall figured no man ever got a cabin easier. Reason Hall was a veteran of the War of 1812, and the Black Hawk affray of 1834. He arrived in Oregon in 1846, at Heck’s shanty a year later and was laying out a city on the site about 1853. He hired a surveyor named Meadows Vanderpool to line the streets and lots. New towns of the day were often named for patriotic reasons, such as Independence and Lincoln, and following the trend Hall named his Liberty. In fact, postal records show there are towns named Liberty in Benton, Marion and Wheeler counties. One grandson in Salem, E. M. Croisant, said Hall decided Buena Vista seemed more appropriate since several of his kinsmen had fought in the Mexican War battle of Buena Vista. Hall may not have understood the Spanish significance of the name but the site did offer a “beautiful view,” any of several gentle rises affording splendid panoramas of the fertile Willamette Valley and its curving river. Even before Hall’s town was platted it had a general store, started in 1851 by partners Weil and Sharf who soon added a warehouse. As travelers arrived some complained because, while their destination was Rocky Point, Judkin’s Landing or Sidney’s Landing, all on the west side of the river, they had no way to get across except by rowboat, swimming their horses and who wanted to remount a wet horse? So Hall started a ferry in 1852, beginning what is one of the longest, continuously operating ferry services—allowing for occasional breakdowns and layups by floods—in Oregon. Later one of Reason Hall’s sons started another Halls Ferry north of Independence. Even in 1964, the traveler still crossed the Willamette at this point by ferry. Other businesses were established rapidly. Around 1850, Jas. A. O’Neal built a warehouse in Buena Vista. He decided his town of Wheatland Landing, grain shipping point 30 miles downriver in the extreme south southeast corner of Yamhill County east of Amity, would soon take second place to the new metropolis and moved to Buena Vista, starting the second general store. The inevitable grist mill in this land of rolling wheat fields was built about the same time. H. D. Godley put up a hotel, and one of Hall’s sons, E. C. (b 1841 IL), opened a wagon shop where the forge glowed red almost constantly. Hall’s daughter, Mary, married Henry Croisant who came to Buena Vista after a short and disillusioning stay in the gold fields of California. A number of descendants of this union still live in Salem, 21 miles distant. One, Geo. Wm. Croisant, has an insurance business there. In 1856, Oregon was anticipating entry into the Union as a state. Centers of population were in the shipping ports and infant industrial towns along the Willamette. Competition among these for the juicy prize of state capitol was intense. No shy violet, Hall saw his embryo town of Buena Vista as out in front but felt he could urge it on even more by judicious publicity. He made a trip to Oregon City and inserted an ad in the Oregon Spector Apr. 21, 1856. One paragraph stated: “The ground is dry, and ascending the riverbank, a more healthful situation cannot be found in the country—no swamp or low or wetland about the place, and is backed by as beautiful and as rich country as there is in Oregon.” As an added incentive, Hall wrote: “There are plenty of the best building timbers handy to the place and thousands of cords of cordwood.” He made the generous offer “to the people of Oregon as much ground as will be wanted to set the state house on, also available as fine a stone quarry as any I have seen in Oregon.” He ended with: “There is a good steamboat landing on the Wallamet River. Come forward and poll your votes for Buena Vista.” But the little river community hardly made a showing in the voting, Salem taking first place. Yet the town went ahead. By now many riverboats which before ended their runs at downstream landings, were including Buena Vista. A school was started in a one-room log house in 1859 which served as a church on Sundays. And three years later the post office was established on Jun. 19, 1866, with Harrison Linville first postmaster. The office closed to Independence May 31, 1935. Buena Vista is Spanish for beautiful view or good view. But while hotels, saloons, schools, stores and blacksmith shops were all part of the economy, the town’s real growth and fame came from an industry unique in Oregon, a stoneware and pottery plant. Much of the pottery used by the pioneers was molded and burned at the Buena Vista kilns, on the mid-Willamette River. When Freeman Smith’s six sons were mustered out of the Union Army at the end of the Civil War, they joined him with the mother and four daughters in migrating to the Far West via the Isthmus of Panama. Arriving in Oregon, in late 1865, Smith heard about a deposit of clay on the banks of the Willamette at Buena Vista which had excellent firing qualities. Smith, who had worked in an eastern pottery plant, tested the clay in a makeshift kiln and bought clay land on the riverbank near the ferryslip. Then he and his sons went to work building the kilns. A deposit of finer clay needed for glazing, was found at Corvallis, 17 miles away. Smith and Company products were eagerly snapped up by local consumers but this small market was soon saturated. Freeman loaded a wagon with this jugs and pots and drove to Albany, confident he would meet with the same ready sale as at home. After a day of discouraging rebuffs and doubts, he was about ready to drive home when he stopped at John Conner’s hardware store. Conner was no more enthusiastic than others but did offer to take the lot on commission, at the rate of 50 cents per gallon capacity. When the potter returned to Albany, Smith found the entire stock of 300 gallon capacity sold, Conner paying him in gold. By 1870, Freeman Smith was ready to retire and sold his interest to son Amendee, who with his brothers, greatly expanded the business, adding such lines as flower pots and sewer pipe. The 15-inch sewer pipeline running down Portland’s SE Stark Street was manufactured at Buena Vista. At this time the plant was employing four “turners” at the potters’ wheels and a crew of ten Chinese for mixing clay. The town boomed with the pottery business, enough to support two physicians, doctors J. C. Woods and Wm. C. Lee, and Woods with a man named March open a drug store. Buena Vista’s most imposing saloon, owned by John Wade whose specialty was a potent spirit called “Blue Ruin,” was sold to Chas. Henry. The new owner added several other lines of liquor and an “annex” for the entertainment of lonely traveling men. The town had its share of fires, the most disastrous one destroying the two-story Wells Store with IOOF and Knights Templars quarters upstairs. At midnight of Saturday, Feb. 10, 1870 member of the night crew at the pottery plant noticed flames shooting from the frame building. Responding volunteer firemen were barely able to save half the goods from the adjoining Pitkin establishment and were forced to stand by as flames leveled both structures. The fire seemed to have started in the fraternal hall where there had been a dance that evening. Total loss was about $5000, a serious setback in those times. Spared by the fire was the notorious Bust Head Saloon not far away. This little false-fronted drink emporium from which the more troublesome drunks were ejected out the back door into a gulch, was the incubator of most of Buena Vista’s crime. One sensational act of violence in the little river town was perpetuated by one Tubbs, accustomed to nurse his grievances at the saloon. Oregon historian Ben Maxwell tells the story. Tubbs, with an extensive criminal record, was so abusive to his wife that although pregnant, she left him, taking refuge with relatives, the Geo. Geer family. On a hot Fourth of July in 1878, Tubbs passed Beech’s Drug Store. Beech was sitting in fron although most merchants had closed up and joined a citizen’s march to Independence to celebrate the holiday. In a friendly tone he remarked to Tubbs: “Sure is a hot day, isn’t it?” Tubbs was reported to have answered in a “surly fashion”: “Yes it is, and it will be a day long remembered in Buena Vista.” It was. About 2pm, B. F. Hall, son of Reason, was sitting on his front porch when he heard several shots coming from the Geer home. He hurried over and was just in time to see Ms. Tubbs reel from the front door and collapse under a big oak tree. While other neighbors tried to help the wounded woman, he rushed in the house and found Tubbs on the floor bleeding profusely from gun shot wounds. He picked up the gun near Tubbs’ hand and saw all chambers of the old style five-shooter had been discharged. Several other men came in and the report states: “The men wore sneers on their faces as they watched Tubbs die.” Ms. Tubbs soon expired also and all agreed it was a plain cause of murder and suicide. In this kind of weather prompt attention had to be given to burial arrangements so several villagers made coffins, the next day B. F. Hall loading them on his wagon and driving to the cemetery on the hill. Ms. Tubbs was interred there but her husband-murderer was buried unceremoniously in adjacent, scrubby land. Sometime later Hall observed the soil had been disturbed and a little digging revealed an empty space. Discreet inquiry disclosed the fact that two Polk County doctors paid a “resurrection man” $50 to remove Tubbs’ remains, clean and sack them, row the gruesome cargo down river to Independence on a moonless night. At its height Buena Vista was one of the most important places along the Willamette and population warranted a large, two-story school. The pottery plant was easily the most important industry, employing several hundred men and second in size was a busy sawmill. Hops were introduced by Adam Weiser in 1867 and became a main crop almost immediately, holding top place for 70 years. But as the years went by many factors gradually killed this prosperity, the worst blow being the bypassing by several miles, of the railroad. Hops declined in demand and value and the pottery plant moved to the larger Portland market. Salem, as capitol, drew away most of the population. In 1964, the town was quiet and almost all the buildings are gone, including the houses, their locations indicated in spring by shoals of yellow daffodils. The Smith Market still operates, the only one that does. The cemetery on the hill is well cared for, commanding an impressive view for miles of the Willamette and lush farmlands. Many markers are of marble, some beautifully sculptured. An open area would seem to indicate graves once marked with wooden headboards which decayed early in the moist climate. Ms. Tubbs' grave would likely be one of them and orchards have long since concealed any trace of her abusive slayer’s violated resting place.
     Butler was named for judge N. L. Butler of Dallas, who owned a farm near here. The post office, which was established May 27, 1872, was located on Casper Creek, about four miles southeast of present-day Grand Ronde. John C. Ellis was the first postmaster. The office closed to Grand Ronde Feb. 15, 1911.
     Chandler was named for Thms. C. Chandler, the first postmaster. The post office, established Apr. 15, 1895, was located on North Fork Rock Creek about five miles southeast of Valsetz. The office closed to Rocca Jul. 14, 1900.
     Cincinnati was named for the Ohio city by A. C. R. Shaw, a founder of this village on the Willamette, who saw a similarity in the sites. A year after Oregon was organized as a territory, the first novel, The Prairie Flower, or Adventures in the Far West, was written in the new country. This novel was published in Cincinnati in 1849. Emerson Bennett was credited with its authorship, but there can be little doubt that it was motivated and mainly written by Sidney Walter Moss (1810-1901), a hotel keeper of Oregon City. It was notable for its portrayal of early mountain characters and its salty trapper’s dialect. Abigail Jane Scott Duniway (1835-1915) taught school in Cincinnati in 1853, and during pioneer days an effort made to establish the state capital there. In 1859, Duniway, who later became the state’s most brilliant champion of Woman Suffrage, published Captain Gray’s Company, a fictional version of the overland journey of the first immigrants, marked by a somewhat barren realism. Many female leaders of the abolitionist movement also wanted to end the domestic slavery of women in the US. In July 1848, a group of these pioneering feminists met in Seneca Falls, NY, where they founded the Woman’s Rights Movement. The delegates in the Seneca Falls convention prepared a list of ways in which women suffered discrimination and agreed to a number of resolutions for change. One of these resolutions declared that women deserved to vote, a right that nearly all 19th Century Women were denied. Only four Western states gave Women the right to vote before 1900, the first of these being Wyoming in 1869. In 1911, Oregon historian Jos. Gaston wrote: “The question of equal rights to women in the exercise of the right of suffrage has been twice submitted to the electors of the state, and failed to receive votes sufficient to incorporate the proposition in the state constitution. It is now again to be voted upon at the ensuing election, the result of which will not be known in time to be included in this history. The great leader of the movement in Oregon, a leader with a national reputation, and a record of 50 years of unfaltering and courageous advocacy of equal rights to all persons—Abigail Scott Duniway—is at this time unfortunately confined to her home from the infirmities of age. But with an intellect that leads that battle of justice, and a dauntless spirit that halts not at opposition or defeat, from her home in the City of Portland still goes out to every hamlet in the state the inspiriting command: ‘Oh watch and fight and pray; the battle never give over; renew it boldly every day; and help divine implore.” Cincinnati post office, established Jun. 5, 1851, was located near the mouth of Rickreall Creek, about four miles west of the heart of Salem. Joshua Shaw was first postmaster of the Cincinnati office, which closed to Eola May 23, 1856.
     Crowley was named for Solomon K. Crowley, an Oregon pioneer of 1852. The post office, which was established Apr. 11, 1881, was located on the Southern Pacific Railroad, about five miles north of Rickreall. It was discontinued Dec. 13, 1882, and re-established at Rickreall Dec. 13, 1882. The first postmaster was John C. Allen.
     Dallas, named for Geo. Mifflin Dallas, vice-president under Polk from 1845 to 1849, is said to have been named Cynthia Anne originally. It was settled in the 1840s on the north side of Rickreall Creek, but was moved more than a mile south in 1856 because of inadequate water supply. It was named for Geo. Mifflin Dallas (1792-1864), vice-president of the US from 1845 to 1849. Dallas was vice-president during Polk’s administration, and when a name was chosen. A narrow gauge railroad was built into Dallas in 1878-1880 as a result of a county seat over Independence. Independence was after the county seat honor, but citizens of Dallas raised $17,000 and secured the branch line, and this settled the contest for the seat of government. Dallas post office was established Oct. 22, 1852, with John E. Lyle postmaster. It was originally on north Rickreall Creek, but a water supply problem forced the relocation to its present site. Attention is called to discrepancies in the available information about the early name of Dallas. It appears both as Cynthian and Cynthia Anne. It is reported that this name was chosen by a Ms. Lovelady in memory of a place in Kentucky, but the name in Kentucky is Cythiana. Harriet McArthur and Judge C. H. Carey of Portland and Cpt. O. C. Applegate of Klamath Falls said in 1927 that the place was named for Ms. Jesse Applegate, whose given name was Cynthia Anne. The Applegates lived in Polk County at the tine the place was named. Baskett Slough originates in the intermittent lakes west and south of Mt. Baldy and four miles northeast of Dallas. It flows eastward several miles and joins Mud Slough. The slough contains 2,492 acres and was named for Geo. J. Baskett, an early valley thoroughbred horse breeder. Baskett was born in Kentucky in 1817 and settled on a donation land claim near this slough in Oct. 1850. The farmed fields, rolling oak-covered hills, and shallow wetlands are home to many wildlife species.  Evelyn Sibley Lampman (1907-1980) was born in Dallas, and died in Portland. She wrote several books for children, including The City Under the Back Steps, Halfbreed, and Cayuse Coyote. She used the name Lynn Bronson on some of her books. David R. Heil (b 1955) spent his early years exploring the meadows, woods, and stream in his hometown of Dallas. His fascination with nature led him to a career in science education. Since 1988, television viewers across the country have watched him as the host of “Newton’s Apple,” a Public Broadcasting (PBS) science program. Heil is also the associate director of the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry in Portland.
     Dixie was the local name for Rickreall during the Civil War and for some time thereafter because of Southern sentiment in the community, but it was never the name of a post office. Located on Rickreall Creek, four miles east of Dallas, Rickreall is an old town by Oregon standards. In 1845, John E. Lyle arrived from Illinois and almost immediately opened a school in the home of col. Nathaniel Ford near the site of Rickreall. Ford, who owned Slaves, settled here in 1844. Rickreall post office was established Jun. 30, 1851, as Rickreal, with Ford first postmaster. The office was discontinued Apr. 11, 1857, and re-established Jun. 19, 1866, as Rickreall, with Ford again serving as postmaster. Many insist that La Creole River should have been called Rickreall, that it was so called by the Indians in the days when they dug camas bulbs along its banks. Others insist that La Creole was the name used by French-Canadians in memory of a young Indian Woman who was drowned in it at the present site of Dallas. As a compromise, the stream is called La Creole River below Dallas and La Creole Creek at Dallas and Rickreall above it. La Creole Academy at Dallas was founded by Horace Lyman. The school was chartered with the name Rickreall, by the territorial legislature in Dec. 1852. The name is given as Ricrall in an advertisement in the Oregonian, Feb. 7, 1852. Oregonians of the settler period, live the Amerindians before the, were tinged with melancholy, but, unlike the their aboriginal counterparts, they trafficked very little with spooks. However, at Rickreall and a few other places in the Willamette Valley were haunted mills. In Benton County was a hollow locally known as Banshee Canyon tenanted by the ghost of Whitehorse, a suicide. From the old-long-vacated Yaquina Bay Lighthouse came cries from a throat that was not human and light from a place where no light was.
     Doak’s Ferry, later known as Lincoln, was probably named for Andrew J. Doak, who was first postmaster of Valfontis post office in 1854. Doak had a donation land claim claim close to the present site of Lincoln, a community at the east edge of Spring Valley. Milton Doak, possibly his son, was born in Oregon in 1857, and was living in Buena vista at the time of the 1870 Census. Lincoln is located at the eastern edge of Spring Valley, on the west bank of the Willamette, seven miles northwest of Salem. It is said to have been named for Abraham Lincoln, who had been assassinated two years earlier. The town grew up with riverboat transportation as a wheat shipping center. Grain was hauled from points as far distant as Willamina. The post office was established May 31, 1867, with Danl. Jackson Cooper (b c1837 TN) first postmaster. There had previously been an office at or near this location, called Valfontis. Lincoln post office was discontinued Mar. 31,1901 and patrons have been served by a rural route from Salem.
     Elk Horn post office, located on Mill Creek near Buell, was established Nov. 16, 1869, with Cyrus Buell first postmaster. Buell, who was born in Iowa in 1836, was a prominent settler on Mill Creek and was interested in the grist mill that gave the stream its name. For about five years the post office was on the Buell place about two miles south or upstream from the highway bridge and present location of the community called Buell. When Thms. R. Blair was appointed postmaster in 1874, the office was moved three miles north on Mill Creek from what is now Buell. The Elk Horn office closed to Sheridan on Oct. 4, 1882, but the locality, which is a little over four miles southwest of Sheridan by road, is still called Elk Horn. Buell post office, located on Mill Creek, about six miles southeast of Willamina, was established Mar. 31, 1900, with Frank Oviatt first postmaster. The community, near Elk Horn, was named for Elias Buell, who was born in New York in 1798. Buell was a pioneer settler who operated a sawmill and small store here, and was most likely the father of Cyrus Buell. Buell’s wife, Sarah, was also born in New York in 1800. The post office was discontinued May 31, 1924, and re-established Jun. 8, 1927. The office closed to Sheridan Sep. 30, 1943.
     Ellendale, a deserted town, developed around a grist mill built here in 1844 by Jas. A. O’Neal. Near his mill O’Neal erected a store and living quarters, and before long O’Neals Mills, the first post office in Polk County, was opened. Located about two miles west of Dalles, on Rickreall Creek, The post office was established Jan. 8, 1850, with Jas. A. O’Neal first and only postmaster. The name of the office was changed to Nesmiths Mills when Jas. W. Nesmith became postmaster on Aug. 21, 1850. That office was discontinued Oct. 22, 1852. But in 1849 the mill was sold to Jas. W. Nesmith and Henry Owen, who in turn, four years later sold it to Hudsons & Company. In announcing the purchase of “the flouring mills and contents...” in the Oregon Statesman for Jul. 19, 1853, the new firm assured its prospective customers that it was prepared to “furnish flour of the first quality to miners and the country trade”; that it had completed “arrangements whereby fresh stocks of merchandise would be received by boat from San Francisco twice monthly”; and that it was the intention of the firm to have its “upright and circular sawmill” in operation by October. To keep the latter pledge, Ezra Hallock and Luther Tuthill in 1854 built a dam a mile above the grist mill and there built the sawmill. It was the only mill of the kind for miles around and people flocked to see it. Part of the equipment was the only planer in that section of Oregon, all lumber having previously been dressed by hand; its installation proved a master stroke of enterprise on the part of the mill, which furnished much of the lumber for many of the buildings still in the neighborhood. In the early 1860s, judge Reuben P. Boise, one of the outstanding members of the Oregon bar, and several others bought the mill and incorporated themselves as the Ellendale Woolen Mill Company, rebuilt the building, installed new machinery, and constructed a boardinghouse and other dwellings for mill employees. Ellendale, rechristened in honor of Ellen Lyon Boise, rapidly grew into a busy village. The small white building was used as slave quarters for Negroes belonging to one of the mill owners before the Civil War. The long, low house was the old store and boardinghouse.
     Eola, located on the west bank of the Willamette, five miles southwest of Salem, was formerly known as Cincinnati, and so appears when the post office was established on Jun. 5, 1851, with Joshua Shaw first postmaster. It is said to have been named by A. C. R. Shaw because of the fancied resemblance of the site to that of Cincinnati, OH. The place was incorporated with the name of Eola by the territorial legislature on Jan. 17, 1856, and the post office was established as Eola on May 23, 1856. The office closed to Salem on Mar. 19, 1901, started operating as a rural station of McMinnville on Jun. 1, 1955, and finally closed its doors on Jun. 30, 1965. Abigail J. Scott Duniway (1835-1915) taught school in Cincinnati in 1853, and during pioneer days an effort made to establish the state capital there. In 1859, Duniway, who later became the state’s most brilliant champion of Woman Suffrage, published Captain Gray’s Company, a fictional version of the overland journey of the first immigrants, marked by a somewhat barren realism. The name Eola comes from Aeolus, god of the winds in Greek mythology. There seems to be good authority for the belief that the name Eola was suggested by a local musical enthusiast named Lindsay Robbins who disliked the name Cincinnati, and offered the new name because he was fond of the Aeolian harp. However, Geo. H. Himes thought that Shaw suggested Eola as well as the original name. On May 22, 1863, cpl. Royal A. Bensell, who was stationed at Ft. Yamhill, wrote in his journal: “Still onward, we find Eola, small and quiet. Five miles of river bottom road, and we discern the capitol of this great state Oregon.”
     Etna was a post office at the Riggs place a few miles north of Rickreall, and, according to Cecil L. Riggs, was possibly named for Mt. Etna in Sicily, which erupted violently in 1852. The post office, established Sep. 4, 1856, was located near Baskett Slough a few miles north of Rickreall. Thms. J. Riggs first and only postmaster of this office, which was discontinued May 8, 1868. Rickreall post office was out of service from 1857 to 1866, so there was need of another office in the locality. Baskett Slough originates in the intermittent lakes west and south of Mt. Baldy and four miles northeast of Dallas. It flows eastward several miles and joins Mud Slough. The slough contains 2,492 acres and was named for Geo. J. Baskett, an early valley thoroughbred horse breeder. Baskett was born in Kentucky in 1817 and settled on a donation land claim near this slough in Oct. 1850. The farmed fields, rolling oak-covered hills, and shallow wetlands are home to many wildlife species.
     Falls City is located on the Southern Pacific Railroad, about eight miles southwest of Dallas.The post office, named for the falls of Little Luckiamute River, just west of the community, was established Oct. 28, 1889. Franklin K. Hubbard was first postmaster of this office, formerly known as Syracuse. Hubbard was born in Missouri around 1845, and was living in Bridgeport at the time of the 1870 Census.
     Firholm post office, established Apr. 8, 1883, was located on Mill Creek, about six miles southwest of Sheridan. Nathan Blair was first postmaster of this descriptively named office which was intended as a replacement for the Elk Horn office, close the previously year. The Firholm office was discontinued Jul. 9, 1883. Nathan Blair, who was born in Oregon in 1851, was living in Grand Ronde at the time of the 1870 Census.
 Fort Hill, just northeast of Valley Junction, was named because Willamette settlers built a blockhouse on its summit in 1855-1856. The federal government sent troops to this place and established Ft. Yamhill on Aug. 30, 1856. The blockhouse was later moved to Grand Ronde Agency and still later to Dayton and set up in a public park.
     Gerlinger was named for Louis Gerlinger, a well-known Oregon lumberman and railroad builder, who promoted The Salem, Falls City & Western Railway, later purchased by the Southern Pacific Company. The crossing of this line and the original west side line a mile south of Derry was named in honor of Gerlinger.
     Grand Ronde, as applied to a valley and two communities in Western Oregon, is universally misspelled, but the style is so firmly fixed in the public mind that there seems little chance to change it. The USBGN tried to secure the use of Grande Ronde but without avail. The French word ronde, meaning circle or roundness, requires the adjective agreement grande, and the two words together may be taken as describing a fine large valley of excellent appearance, more or less hemmed in by hills. This valley and the one in Union County were named by French-Canadian trappers because of their aspect, but the valley in Eastern Oregon is always called Grande Ronde. For many years there was a Grand Ronde Indian Reservation in Polk and Yamhill counties. There were 1046 Indians on this reservation in the census of 1867. The Grand Ronde Agency, which was in Yamhill County, was closed in the fall of 1925, but a community remains. In the 1920s the railroad was extended from Willamina and the present Salmon River Highway was started along South Yamhill River. These both bypassed Grand Ronde Agency about a mile and a half south in Polk County and the present community of Grand Ronde grew up just west of the mouth of Rock Creek. Grand Ronde post office was established at the site of Ft. Yamhill, about a half mile north of what is now Valley Junction. About 1894 the office was moved to Grand Ronde Agency in Yamhill County, and in the early 1920s it was moved to the present site of Polk County. Grand Ronde post office, established Feb. 16, 1861, with Benj. Simpson first postmaster, was initially located near the site of Ft. Yamhill, on Yamhill River near the mouth of Casper Creek. Grand Ronde Agency lies about a mile and a half north of Yamhill County, and it was here that the post office operated from 1894-1924. Post Office Department records indicate a change in spelling to “Grande Ronde” from 1894 to 1924, but the Official Register simply indicates that the post office name was a one-word form “Grandronde” during this period. In 1895 Butler post office was established at the locality of Ft. Yamhill. The railroad was abandoned in the 1980s. Beautiful Willamette, written by the first postmaster’s poet son, Saml. L. Simpson (1846-1899), was published in the Albany States Rights Democrat Apr. 18, 1868. Spirit Mountain, about a mile north of Grand Ronde, was so named because Native Americans thought Spirits or Skoomums lived on it. It was at one time called Cosper Butte for a family of early settlers. Dr. Rodney Glisan and other officers stationed at Ft. Yamhill climbed this mountain on Oct. 30, 1856, but Glisan does not mention a name in Journal of Army Life, 374-375.
     Independence is located about two miles east of Monmouth on the west bank of the Willamette. The post office was established Apr. 3, 1852, with Leonard Williams first postmaster. The community was named by Elvin A. Thorpe, who founded the community. The name was in compliment to Independence, MO. Thorpe was born in Howard County, MO, in 1820. He came to Oregon in 1844, took up a donation land claim at the present site of the town, in Jun. 1845. On May 22, 1863, Royal A. Bensell wrote in his journal: “Get the teams started for home and take the Salem road myself. Pass through the flourishing town of Monmouth, noted for its institute and arid situation. Six miles further and we pass Independence, situated on the Willamette. Next place bearing a name is Leona, one house and ferry. Still onward, we find Eola, small and quiet. Five miles of river bottom road, and we discern the capitol of this great state Oregon.”
     Lackemute post office, established Mar. 14, 1851, was named for the Luckiamute River, which joins the Willamette in southern Polk County. Harrison Linville (b c1814 TN), was the first postmaster of this office, one of the earliest in the county. The office was close to the Luckiamute River, probably a little west of the present Pacific Highway West, and in the extreme south part of the county. It also appears that the office was moved several times in the Lower Luckiamute Valley to suit the postmasters. Linville was later postmaster at Buena Vista near the mouth of the stream. Isaac Staats (b c1815 NY) lived near the junction of Little Luckiamute, some eight miles to the west. Known examples of postal markings, all manuscript, bear a variety of spellings of the name of this office, which was discontinued on Nov. 23, 1874. In later years there was a railroad station Luckiamute on the Oregonian Railway narrow gauge line a little north of the Luckiamute River and about four miles northeast of Pedee. This place never had a post office. Time has done much to obliterate the community. In the interest of simplicity government mapping agencies have dropped the word “Big” from the the main branch of Luckiamute River. Little Luckiamute River rises in the Coast Range southwest of Dallas. It joins Luckiamute River south of Independence. Luckiamute is an Indian word the meaning of which is unknown. Stories to the effect that it is based on an incident having to do with a deaf mute may be dismissed as fiction.
     Lawn Arbor post office, established Apr. 12, 1855, was located on South Yamhill River, about three miles southwest of Amity near the Polk-Yamhill county line. Marshall B. Burke was first postmaster of this office, which was formerly known as South Yamhill. The South Yamhill office was established Jul. 6, 1852, and was located in the vicinity of present-day Broadmead. The Lawn Arbor office was discontinued Feb. 22, 1865.
     Lewisville was named for Mary (b c1823), and David R. Lewis I (b c1814 KY), pioneers of 1845. Their donation land claim formed the basis of the community, which was located just north of Luckiamute River, about five miles southwest of Monmouth. By the 1980s, nothing remained to mark its location. Lewisville post office was established in Apr. 21, 1868, with Abraham Wing first postmaster. Wing was born in Poland in 1838, and was living in Lackemute at the time of the 1870 Census. The Lewises, who lived in Lackemute at the time of the 1870 US Census, were the parents of David R. II (b c1845 MO), Jas. H. (b c1849 OR), Eliza (b c1853 OR), and Mariah (b c1855 OR). In the Hart Cemetery near Lewisville is the grave of Jas. A. O’Neal, who came to Oregon with the Wyeth party in 1834, and who served as chairman of the second “Wolf meeting,” held on Mar. 6, 1843, and as a member of the legislative committee appointed by the meeting. On Feb. 28, 1905, Lewisville closed to Monmouth.
     Lincoln, formerly called Doak’s Ferry, is located at the eastern edge of Spring Valley, on the west bank of the Willamette, seven miles northwest of Salem. It is said to have been named for Abraham Lincoln, who had been assassinated two years earlier. The town grew up with riverboat transportation as a wheat shipping center. Grain was hauled from points as far distant as Willamina. The post office was established May 31, 1867, with Danl. Jackson Cooper (b c1837 TN) first postmaster. There had previously been an office at or near this location, called Valfontis. Lincoln post office was discontinued Mar. 31,1901 and patrons have been served by a rural route from Salem. Doak’s Ferry, later known as Lincoln, was probably named for Andrew J. Doak, who was first postmaster of Valfontis post office in 1854. Doak had a donation land claim claim close to the present site of Lincoln, a community at the east edge of Spring Valley. Milton Doak, possibly his son, was born in Oregon in 1857, and was living in Buena vista at the time of the 1870 Census.
     McCoy post office, established Dec. 19, 1879, was located on the Southern Pacific Railroad, about nine miles north of Rickreall. The post office was named for Isaac McCoy, who owned the land upon which the community was built. McCoy was born in Indiana in 1833, and was living in Eola at the time of the 1870 Census. Jas. A. Sears was first postmaster of this office, which became a rural station of Dallas on Apr. 30, 1959, and was discontinued Mar. 15, 1968.
     Monmouth was named for Monmouth, IL. In 1852 a group of citizens of the Illinois community crossed the plains to Oregon, and after spending the first winter at Crowley, five miles north of Rickreall, settled in 1853 near the present site of Monmouth. Members of the party gave 640 acres of land on which to establish a town and a college under the auspices of the christian church. The place was surveyed in 1855 by T. H. Hutchinson. The money secured from the sale of lots was devoted to the building of the christian college, which was known as Monmouth University. At a mass meeting the people selected Monmouth as the name of the new community, in home. In 1856 mercantile buildings were erected. The first house was built in 1857. The post office was established Feb. 25, 1859, with Jos. B. V. Butler first postmaster. In 1871, due to the influence of the church, the name of Monmouth University was changed to Christian College. The college underwent vicissitudes due to lack of funds, and was once offered to the state for a university. In 1882 the Oregon legislature passed a bill creating the Oregon State Normal School at Monmouth, which absorbed the Christian College. The name of the school was later changed to the Oregon College of Education and more recently renamed Western Oregon State College.
     Nesmiths Mills, formerly known as O’Neals Mills was located on Rickreall Creek, about two miles west of Dallas. The post office was established Aug. 21, 1850 with Jas. W. Nesmith first postmaster. The office was discontinued Oct. 22, 1852. O’Neals Mills post office, the first in Polk County, was established Jan. 8, 1850, with Jas. A. O’Neal first and only postmaster.
     O’Neals Mills, the first post office in Polk County, was located about two miles west of Dalles, on Rickreall Creek. The post office was established Jan. 8, 1850, with Jas. A. O’Neal first and only postmaster. The name of the office was changed to Nesmiths Mills when Jas. W. Nesmith became postmaster on Aug. 21, 1850. That office was discontinued Oct. 22, 1852. In 1845, O’Neal built the first grist mill in Polk County, a few hundred feet from what was later Ellendale. About 1849 O’Neal sold the mill to Jas. W. Nesmith and Henry Owen, who operated dit until 1854, and then sold it to Hudson & Company. Due to the length of time necessary to communicate with Washington DC, O’Neal’s appointment may have been made after he had sold the mill. Reuben P. Boise came to Oregon in 1850, and took up a donation land claim at Nesmiths Mills in 1852. He named the place Ellendale for his wife, Ellen Lyon, native of Massachusetts, who sailed from new York to San Francisco in the record time of 89 days on the Flying Cloud. The mill flume too water from the creek on the south side and crossed to the north side near the present county bridge. One of Oregon’s pioneer woolen mills was started in Ellendale in 1860.
     Parker post office, established Sep. 27, 1880, was located on the Lower Luckiamute River and the Southern Pacific Railroad, about two miles north of Suver. Jas. L. Coutee was first postmaster of this office, which was discontinued Mar. 13, 1882. The office was re-established as Parkers on Dec. 12, 1884, land was discontinued Dec. 31, 1907. It was re-established as Parker on Aug. 24, 1914, and closed to Independence on Mar. 31, 1927. The Bloomington office served this locality from May 25, 1852 to Jun. 24, 1863. Eli W. Foster was first postmaster of this pioneer office.
     Pedee owns its name to col. Cornelius Gilliam who was born in North Carolina in 1798 and came to Oregon in 1844. He was killed in 1848. Either he, or members of his family, named Pedee Creek, a tributary of Luckiamute River. Pedee community is near the mouth of this creek. The name is, or course, from the famous river of North and South Carolina which was doubtless frequently in the minfds of the Gilliams. The stream in the South is officially Peedee, but the place in Oregon is spelled Pedee.
     Perrydale is located four miles west of the Eola Hills, and a little over a mile west of McCoy. The community was named by Wm. Perry, a pioneer landowner. The post office was established Aug. 12, 1870, with Jacob C. Cooper first postmaster. Cooper, who was a merchant living in Salt Creek at the time of the 1870 Census, was born in Missouri in 1846. On Jun. 30, 1953, Perrydale became a rural station of Amity, and was discontinued Apr. 3, 1973.
     Plum Valley is a little vale on the west slope of Eola Hills, about three miles northwest of Zena, south of Bethel and east of McCoy, and it drains westward into Ash Swale. Its name came from the wild plums that grew in the vicinity according to John E. Smith in his booklet, Bethel, the name was probably selected by Amos Harvey. Plum Valley post office was established Nov. 30, 1854, on the Absalom H. Frier claim, a little to the south of the valley and about on the south line of section 20. Frier, who was born in New York in 1814, served as first postmaster. He was a farmer living in Etna at the time of the 1870 Census. In 1856 the office was moved to Plum Valley proper. It was moved several times but never far from Bethel. The office was discontinued Aug. 13, 1863.
     Polk post office, established Mar. 9, 1885, was located on Luckiamute River, about a mile east of the earlier Bridgeport office. Lycurgus Hill was first postmaster of this office, which closed to Lewisville Dec. 7, 1885. This was the first of two different post offices with this name in Polk County. The second one was located on the narrow gauge Oregon Railway Company line about three miles northeast of Dallas. This Polk post office was established Apr. 12, 1899, with Peter R. Garber first postmaster. On Feb. 15, 1902, the second Polk office closed to Dallas.43
 Rickreall, located on Rickreall Creek, four miles east of Dallas, is an old town by Oregon standards. In 1845, John E. Lyle arrived from Illinois and almost immediately opened a school in the home of col. Nathaniel Ford near the site of Rickreall. Ford, who owned Slaves, settled here in 1844. Rickreall post office was established Jun. 30, 1851, as Rickreal, with Ford first postmaster. The office was discontinued Apr. 11, 1857, and re-established Jun. 19, 1866, as Rickreall, with Ford again serving as postmaster. Many insist that La Creole River should have been called Rickreall, that it was so called by the Indians in the days when they dug camas bulbs along its banks. Others insist that La Creole was the name used by French-Canadians in memory of a young Indian Woman who was drowned in it at the present site of Dallas. As a compromise, the stream is called La Creole River below Dallas and La Creole Creek at Dallas and Rickreall above it. La Creole Academy at Dallas was founded by Horace Lyman. The school was chartered with the name Rickreall, by the territorial legislature in Dec. 1852. The name is given as Ricrall in an advertisement in the Oregonian, Feb. 7, 1852. During the Civil War and for some time thereafter Rickreall village was frequently referred to as Dixie because of Southern sentiment in the community. The name Dixie was used colloquially for several decades, but it was never the name of a post office. Oregonians of the settler period, live the Amerindians before the, were tinged with melancholy, but, unlike the their aboriginal counterparts, they trafficked very little with spooks. However, at Rickreall and a few other places in the Willamette Valley were haunted mills. In Benton County was a hollow locally known as Banshee Canyon tenanted by the ghost of Whitehorse, a suicide. From the old-long-vacated Yaquina Bay Lighthouse came cries from a throat that was not human and light from a place where no light was.
     Rocca post office was on Rock Creek located in the southwest corner of the county, about six miles southwest of Valsetz. The office was established Apr. 30, 1895, with Maggie L. Hampton first of four postmasters. During its entire existence, it was in the Hampton home. When the office was first proposed it was planned to have Saml. Center act as postmaster, but as he was moving from the neighborhood, other arrangements were necessary. Center asked to have the office named for his daughter, Mary Rocca Center, who had been named for a friend of her mother who had married an Italian. In the 1970s, Morris X. Smith of Chitwood lectured some schoolchildren: “Rocca is not even written up in the book, Western Ghost Town Shadows, because it didn’t last very long and there isn’t very much information about it. If you’re coming from Siletz it’s east towards Logsden just before Valsetz. Maggie Hampton lived there with her sister in their parents’ old home. I remember an orchard there with all varieties of apples, filberts and hickory nuts. There was a chicken yard up on the hill. I went deer hunting up there one time with a friend of mine. On Jul. 17, 1899, she wrote in yearbook, ‘If you meet with one pursuing ways the wrong have entered in working out its own undoing with sin, think to this sinful disposition would a kind word be in vein? Will you look with cold suspicion, will you back the truth again?’ Rocca post office closed to Nortons Aug. 31, 1918. Nortons post office was located on the Southern Pacific Railroad, about six miles west of Nashville. It was established Apr. 6, 1895, with Jas. S. Huntington first postmaster. Named for the Norton family, early settlers in this part of the Yaquina Valley, the post office closed to nearby Eddyville Jan. 15, 1934. In 1985, Evelyn Parry of Toledo wrote: “It was one of the many offices to serve an isolated group of homes with mail three times a week. Gertrude Chamberlain Phillips said her grandfather, Rich. Jas. Robinson, carried the mail from Nortons to Rocca on horseback during the winter and by buggy during the summer. Maggie Hampton was the postmaster for several years.”
     Salt Creek rises in the foothills of Dallas and flows northeast into the South Yamhill. John Ford of Dallas said it was named in pioneer days because of the salt licks on its banks. The advance of civilization has apparently obliterated the licks. Salt Creek post office was located about six miles northwest of Dallas on Salt Creek. This office was established Jul. 6, 1852, with Jas. B. Riggs first postmaster. Riggs, who was born in New York in 1802, was farming in Dallas at the time of the 1870 Census. Etna was a post office at the Riggs place a few miles north of Rickreall, and, according to Cecil L. Riggs, was possibly named for Mt. Etna in Sicily, which erupted violently in 1852. The post office, established Sep. 4, 1856, was located near Baskett Slough a few miles north of Rickreall. Thms. J. Riggs first and only postmaster of this office, which was discontinued May 8, 1868. Rickreall post office was out of service from 1857 to 1866, so there was need of another office in the locality.
     Smithfield, formerly a railroad station about five miles northeast of Dallas, bears the name of Absalom M. Smith (b c1840 PA), a potter pioneer settler. Smithfield post office was established Jul. 28, 1893, with Ira Kimball (b c1800 NH) postmaster, but the railroad station was in service before that date. The post offices was closed before Mar. 1900. The railroad through this place was originally the narrow gauge line of the Oregonian Railway Company, later standardized by Southern Pacific Company. The tract has been removed and the site is now mostly farmland.
     South Yamhill post office, established Jul. 6, 1852, was located on South Yamhill River in the vicinity of present-day Broadmead. Marshall B. Burke served as first postmaster. On Apr. 12, 1855, the name of this office was changed to Lawn Arbor. Burke also served as postmaster of this office, which was discontinued Feb. 22, 1865.
     Spring Valley post office, established Mar. 5, 1852, was located along Spring Valley Creek, about one mile northwest of Zena. Sanford Watson was first postmaster of this office, which was discontinued Sep. 1, 1855. Watson, who was born in Kentucky in 1801, was farming in Etna at the time of the 1870 Census.
     Sugarloaf post office, established Apr. 16, 1895, was located in the Siletz Basin in the same locality as present-day Valsetz. It was named for Sugarloaf Mountain, a conical peak just north of South Fork Siletz River. John S. Wright was first postmaster of this office, which closed to Rocca on Apr. 30, 1904. Valsetz was a company town located on Siletz River, 16 miles west of Falls City. After the bad forest fire of 1910, the Wm. W. Mitchell Company built a railroad up the Luckiamute to the summit of the Coast Range and began logging in western Polk County. In 1910 construction was started on a sawmill and a company town at the terminus of the railroad just over the divide into the Siletz River drainage. The town was named Valsetz, made-up from parts of the name of the Valley & Siletz Railroad. Valsetz post office was established Nov. 6, 1920, with Marion Zimmerman first postmaster. It was discontinued Jun. 30, 1984, and the community ceased to exist.
     Suver is was located on the Southern Pacific Railroad, three miles south of Parker. The town was named for Jos. W. Suver, who was born in Virginia in 1819. Suver and his wife Deliley, settled on a donation land claim at the present site of the community in 1845. Suver was farming in Buena Vista at the time of the 1870 Census. Saml. Cohen was first postmaster of this office, which closed to Monmouth on Feb. 15, 1935.
     Syracuse, located on the south bank of Santiam River, about two miles west of Jefferson, was founded in 1848 by Milton Hale. In the autumn of 1845, Hale staked his claim on the south side of the Santiam. Returning with his family, in the spring of 1846, he found the river impassible, and with an ax, an adze, and an augur, he constructed a ferryboat to convey his possessions across. Other travelers arriving before barge was completed waited to use it in crossing. Thus encouraged, Hale continued to operate the ferry for many years. Syracuse post office was established Oct. 1850, with Jacob Conser first postmaster. Nearly all of the emigrant travel to the upper valley on the east side of the Willamette passed this point. The town of Syracuse, on the south side of the river, soon had a rival on the north in Santiam City, which became an important trading point, and Syracuse post office closed to Santiam City Jul. 27, 1852. Both towns prospered for many years, then disappeared, until no trace of them except the cemetery remains.
     Valfontis post office, established Sep. 29, 1854, was located at the eastern edge of Spring Valley, on the west bank of the Willamette. Andrew J. Doak was first postmaster of this pioneer office, which was discontinued Aug. 8, 1865. The origin of its name has not transpired, thought its meaning may be surmised: it was just another term for Spring Valley. Claybourne C. Walker became postmaster Jun. 12, 1855. Walker, who was born in West Virginia in 1819, was farming in Eola at the time of the 1870 Census. Doak and Walker had claims close to the present site of Lincoln, a community at the east edge of Spring Valley, and Valfontis was in that neighborhood.
     Valsetz was a company town located on Siletz River, 16 miles west of Falls City. After the bad forest fire of 1910, the Wm. W. Mitchell Company built a railroad up the Luckiamute to the summit of the Coast Range and began logging in western Polk County. In 1910 construction was started on a sawmill and a company town at the terminus of the railroad just over the divide into the Siletz River drainage. The town was named Valsetz, made-up from parts of the name of the Valley & Siletz Railroad. Valsetz post office was established Nov. 6, 1920, with Marion Zimmerman first postmaster. It was discontinued Jun. 30, 1984, and the community ceased to exist. The forerunner to Valsetz was Sugarloaf post office, established Apr. 16, 1895. It was named for Sugarloaf Mountain, a conical peak just north of South Fork Siletz River. John S. Wright was first postmaster of this office, which closed to Rocca on Apr. 30, 1904.
     Zena, a ghost town, was first called Spring Valley, because of the numerous springs in the vicinity. It became Zena in 1866, when D. J. Cooper and his brother, on building the store and obtaining the post office, named it after the last syllables of their Wives’ names, Arvazena and Melzena Cooper. The pioneer Zena Church was built in 1859, was still standing without alteration in the 1950s. The church bell, widely known for its tone, was cast in England and came around the Horn.

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